Tag Archives: p&d

Data Analysis & Writing the Dissertation

This is the final post in my P&D series, where I will provide an overview of the Research Analysis and Writing the Dissertation stages.

Research Analysis

The approach used for the data analysis differs depending on the research strategy and data collection methods used, so here’s a quick summary of the method I followed for Grounded Theory Research using Interviews.

As I alluded to in my previous post, one of the challenges I encountered was what to do with 15 interview recordings, each of around 30-45 minutes length – transcribing these was likely to take between 4 and 8 working days before I even started the analysis! However, reading the literature about Grounded Theory introduced me to the concept of coding: this involves taking the salient points from the interviews and assigning them to a ‘code’ which represents the essence of the statement. For example, the comment “a strategic alliance is where two organisations combine to produce a new product offering that does not exist today and brings value to both organisations” could be assigned the code “joint value-generating product offering”.

There are many different ways of undertaking qualitative data coding, included dedicated software packages such as NVivo. However, I decided to use Excel given that I didn’t want to spend time learning a new software application, and am very comfortable manipulating data in Excel. I started by listening to the recording of each interview and summarising the key statements made (as opposed to transcribing every word), as well as using a macro to record the timestamp for each comment:

Analysis Step 1

Then I reviewed all the statements across all interviews, assigned each of them to one of my research objectives (eg. long-term strategy, success factors, organisational readiness), and gave them an initial code to represent the statement:

Analysis Step 2

The advantage of this two-pass approach was that the initial recording of comments helped me become familiar with the data, and allowed me to get a view of the trends appearing between interviews, so I could choose codes that were consistent across all the comments.

The final stage of the analysis involved focusing on each of the individual research objectives separately, where I used an Excel PivotTable to summarise the codes assigned to each one. This was generally quite a long list (eg. 30-40 different codes), but reviewing all the codes together helped me to see trends or identify gaps in the level of detail. I was then able to return to the original data and re-code some of the statements (focused codes); this resulted in a more manageable list (eg. 10 different codes), which I could then compare across the different types of individuals interviewed.

An additional benefit to this approach (in addition to consolidating 816 statements down to about 60 codes), was that it provided a quantitive data set to work with alongside the original qualitative comments. Although the sample size was not big enough to draw statistically valid conclusions, I was still able to draw numerical comparisons of the data. More importantly, this exercise took around 27 hours rather than the expected 50-60!

Writing the Dissertation

Undoubtably the most daunting aspect of undertaking the P&D is writing the 15,000 word dissertation (or possibly longer with supervisor approval!). Although there is a typical structure for a dissertation, there is flexibility in how it is written. My advice would be to work closely with your supervisor to ensure it is structured in a way that suits them – not only because they have lots of experience in reviewing them, but also because they will be first marking your work. I had a really helpful supervisor who provided me with a pro-forma beforehand explaining what he typically likes to see in each section – by aligning my dissertation to this meant it would be presented in a way he expected, and ensured I did not miss any fundamental points. I was also in regular contact with him whilst writing my dissertation, not only to gain initial feedback on each chapter, but also to seek advice about topics such as the level of depth required for the literature review, and how to divide content between results, analysis and recommendations.

Here’s a brief summary of how I approached my dissertation

Introduction – I wrote this chapter prior to starting my research, and although I found it necessary to change it over time, I would definitely recommend writing this chapter as you start your P&D; it forces you to think about why your research is important, ensures you capture sufficient background information on the subject of your research, and encourages you to think about how you will go about your research – all of which help bring the P&D to life very quickly.

Literature Review – I’ve discussed the literature review in a previous post, but one of the biggest challenges I faced with this was how to avoid writing too much. Having a specific set of research objectives helped with this, as it provided focus to the review, and avoided me discussing the many interesting (but not relevant) findings on the topic in general.

Research Methodology – This chapter was slightly easier to write than others, and like the introduction I would suggest writing this before undertaking the research, as what you learn whilst writing this section may change how you approach the research itself – as I mentioned previously, I originally planned to pursue a case study approach, but writing this section resulted in me changing to the grounded theory approach, which was far more suitable to my P&D objectives.

Results – I encountered some challenges writing my Results chapter – the initial feedback by my supervisor highlighted that I had used this section to begin my analysis, with the consequence that I did not  display my results effectively. This highlights the importance of getting your initial draft to your supervisor early, as I was able to work closely with him to understand how to split content between the Results and Analysis chapters. Following a number of discussions, I focused on using the Results chapter to compare the various statements and codes identified for each of the two sample groups I interviewed. I used a combination of text, tables and charts to make it easy for the reader to interpret (and also to keep my word count under control!), which also helped highlight trends and patterns for discussion in the analysis chapter. Another minor challenge I encountered when writing the results was how to use references for comments made by interviewees, as all interviews were anonymous. I overcame this by using a code to classify different types of interviewees (eg. DH1..5 were department heads and SH1…5 were individuals working with strategic alliances).

Analysis – The analysis section focused on evaluating the research findings against the literature review. This was a much more descriptive section than the Results chapter, and  the section that required the most thought. It was really interesting to write this section, as bringing the literature review into context both helped explain some of the results I had seen, and also allowed me to identify some new theories: both specifically to the subject of my research, and also more generically to the field of strategic alliances itself.

Recommendations – This section is essentially the outcome from your P&D; ie. after undertaking the research and analysis, this is what my recommendation is moving forward. Having spent four months looking into the subject matter and speaking with many colleagues about the topic, I started writing this section with a view on what my recommendations would be. However, by taking the time to justify these recommendations using my literature review and analysis, I felt that I could really stand by these recommendations as they were proven by my research, as well as identifying some new recommendations that I had not previously considered.

Conclusion – There were three parts to my conclusion; firstly I stated a specific answer to the original research question. Although this may seem obvious, this is something that I didn’t naturally bring out in my first draft, and yet including it provided the dissertation with a strong point of closure. I also used this chapter to highlight some of the limitations of my research, suggest how it could be generalised to other subjects, and also propose potential ways of taking the research further.

Submission

Submission

And that was it … 6 months later, 110 pages (including appendices and references) were submitted to Warwick Business School. Not only did this represent the completion of my P&D, but it also marked the completion of my MBA – pressing the ‘Submit’ button for the final time was a wonderful feeling! Since then I have had my dissertation marked, and my MBA has been officially confirmed by the University. Next step … graduation!

My MBA Dissertation

Planning your P&D Research

Following the literature review which I described in my last blog post, the typical next step on an MBA project is the research stage. This was the stage that I was most looking forward to, as it allowed me to engage in the topic in a real-life environment, and capture new insights above those I had read about in the literature review.

Book - Research Methods for Business StudentsAlthough I already had a view on the approach I intended to take for my research, I reviewed the book Research Methods for Business Students first; this not only shaped my research plan, but also helped me appreciate the reasons why this approach was most suitable, as well as some of the limitations. It quickly became apparent that planning academic research is about much more than just deciding whether you want to undertake interviews, surveys, observation, etc., with many other factors to consider first.

Preparing for your Research

One of the first aspects to consider is the Research Philosophy, which could be one of Positivism, Realism, Interpretivism and Pragmatism. Following a brief review of these, it became clear that I was pursuing an interpretivist philosophy for my research. Although I don’t feel this impacted significantly on how I undertook my research, reading about these philosophies  brought an awareness of the different perspectives that research can take, and helped me appreciate how complex the field of research is.

Following this, I looked into the Research Approach. This appeared to be more  relevant to planning my research, as it describes the overall intent of undertaking the research:

  • Deductive – this type of research involves proving or disproving a specific hypothesis
  • Inductive – this is more of an exploratory approach to research, where the hypothesis is expected to ‘emerge’ from the research findings
  • Abductive – this is a combination of the above two approaches; inductive research is undertaken to identify a hypothesis, and then  deductive research is taken to prove/disprove it

Although I originally wanted to pursue an abductive research approach, following discussions with my supervisor I decided to use an inductive research approach, as I would not have had time to undertake two separate research exercises.

Next I considered the Research Methodology – was I intending to undertake quantitative research based on statistical or mathematical data, or qualitative research based on words, images and other less-structured data (I appreciate this is a somewhat simplified view of the two!). The majority of my research was likely to be qualitative (as I was planning to use interviews to capture participants’  viewpoints) but there was also likely to be a quantitative aspect as I intended to capture some information in specific categories, and then apply a mathematical comparison of the output. My key observation from this, however, was that the choice of qualitative or quantitative does not necessarily need to be made when planning research, and in my case developing my research plan changed the balance slightly.

Finally there is the Research Design:

  • Exploratory research – used to explore a topic and capture new insights
  • Descriptive research – used to understand what happened or is happening
  • Explanatory research – used to explain what happened or is happening

I opted to pursue an exploratory research design, as the objective of my research was to plan for a future scenario, as opposed to evaluating a past situation.

Research Strategy

Many different strategies can be used for undertaking research, including:

  • experiments,
  • surveys,
  • archival research,
  • case studies,
  • ethnography,
  • action research,
  • grounded theory research,
  • narrative inquiry

Initially my intention was to pursue a case study approach; however, after further investigation I realised this involved focused on explaining a past or current event, rather than preparing for a future one (which was the objective of my dissertation). This led me to look into action research, but this relies on the research resulting in changes to the topics being studied, which would not be possible in my “advisory” P&D. I finally decided to use a grounded theory research strategy, which involves developing new theories based on findings from my research.

Although the choice of research strategy may appear academic, I would strongly suggest that anyone undertaking a P&D considers this towards the start of their project – there is a wealth of information on each of these strategies that will not only help design the research appropriately, but also maximise the insights captured from it. I personally found a lot of value in reading about them, especially when I had decided on the strategy I wanted to pursue.

Data Collection Methodology

The final aspect to planning research (although ironically the one that most people think of first) is what method to collect data using. There are three key data collection methods for primary research:

  • Observation
  • Interviews & Focus groups
  • Questionnaires & Surveys

I decided to use semi-structured interviews for my research as they would allow me to explore the topic in-depth with the research participants, and also provide an environment where I could capture new learnings about a topic, rather than limiting the research to my current understanding of the topic. Here are some tips for anyone else considering using interviews for their research:

  • Getting a good sample is critical – I was lucky as I had a very supportive sponsor who helped facilitate access to a large and appropriate range of interviewees, but this is definitely something that should be considered early as gaining access can take some time.
  • Sony DictaphoneUse the right tools – I purchased a Sony Dictaphone just for this research, which was a very worthwhile investment as the interview recordings were extremely clear and easy to review and write-up.
  • Plan your interview, but be flexible – I spent a lot of time preparing interview themes, questions and discussion points, all of which were valuable for less forthcoming interviewees. However, some of the most insightful interviews were those where the interviewees strayed from the initial themes slightly, and exposed thoughts and observations that provided a more rounded view of my research topic.
  • Be conscious of the time to write-up the results – full transcribing of interviews can take 3-6x the length of the interviews (so 15 x 45-minute interviews would require 30-60 hours!). However, depending on the purpose of the research full transcribing may not be necessary; I used a coding approach to reduce this to about 2x the duration (see the textbooks on Grounded Theory for more information on this).

As you can probably tell from the above, planning research is far more involved than just choosing a way to collect data, and I recommend the above points are all given at least some thought prior to starting research (not least because it will help when writing the ‘research methodology’ section of your dissertation). I would also recommend either investing in or loaning two books – the first would be a broad business research book the explains the above in more detail Constructing Grounded Theory(such as the one I mentioned in a previous blog post); the second would be a book specific to your choice of research strategy (eg. grounded theory), as this will help ensure that your approach to data collection will allow you to analyse the results quickly, and in a way that maximises the value you get from your findings.

Overall I found the research stage of my P&D really interesting, and it gave me a fantastic opportunity to engage with some senior individuals at my employer and discuss a very interesting topic (and if there are any reading this – thank you very much for your time, every interview was extremely valuable). The next step of my P&D was to analyse the results and write the dissertation, which will be the subject of my next blog post.

The P&D Literature Review

It is with great pleasure that I can write that earlier this month I submitted the final assignment of my MBA, the dissertation. Pressing the ‘Submit’ button represented not only the completion of my Project & Dissertation, but also the end of my MBA studies – and despite having thoroughly enjoyed the experience, and acquired a wealth of knowledge, it felt wonderful to draw it to a close after 38 months of studying. All that is left now is to wait for my dissertation to be graded, following which I should be able to graduate and formally conclude my MBA in July this year.

Until then, however, I will continue sharing my experience of the P&D; my last post described my plan for the P&D, and I will now explain how I approached the first stage, the literature review.

The Literature Review

I admit that this wasn’t something I was looking forward to – the task of finding and reviewing 50-100 documents seemed quite daunting. However, the book I referred to in my last post provided some useful guidance which made the whole process a lot easier, and resulted in me splitting it into four different stages: Search, Review, Analyse and Write.

1. Search

I started the literature review process by searching for articles using the Warwick University Library website. This contains a full catalogue of books, eBooks, papers, journals, and other documentary sources, which can either be accessed online, or viewed physically from the University Library; despite being a distance-learning student, I was still able to gain access to printed materials using the postal loan service, which proved invaluable on a number of occasions.

One of the initial challenges is figuring out where to start – a search for “strategic alliances” identified 84,683 different articles! However, I quickly found that by bringing together different phrases that were aligned with my research objectives, I was able to view a more focused set of results. I also narrowed down the results using the filters built into the search tool (eg. timeframe = last 10 years, subject area = strategic alliances), and also undertook a manual filtering exercise where I excluded documents that were clearly not relevant based on their title. This didn’t take long – after 6-7 searches I had identified over 70 documents, and found that subsequent searches were increasingly showing the same documents.

Once you have found the various literature sources, it’s important to find a way to store them. There is an ‘add to bag’ option within the library search application, but I didn’t feel this would give me sufficient ability to manage the different sources properly moving forward. As such, I decided to create a spreadsheet, recording the title, year, and any initial thoughts for each source – although this was more time-consuming than just adding to a bag, it was really helpful during the analysis and writing up stages. I also stored copy of each document in Evernote (see here to find out how) – although this was a time-consuming activity, it made writing the dissertation far easier.

Literature Review Table

2. Review

After collating all the documents I reviewed them in varying levels of depth – some I read end-to-end (especially the shorter HBR articles), annotating them using Evernote; others I just skimmed the introduction, conclusion and any sections that appeared particularly relevant. The objective of this stage was to determine the focus of each document, as well as understanding which of them would actually be relevant, useful and applicable to the research. A useful tip that I read was to write one or two sentences for each source that summarises the key message/focus areas; again this was very useful in future stages.

As part of this stage I also recorded which of the research objectives each document was relevant to in my previous spreadsheet, which made writing the literature review much easier as I could just filter the sources by this column.

3. Analyse

The next stage of the literature review was to review the relevant documents identified in the Review stage, capturing specifically relevant comments, conclusions, explanations, theories, models, and other artefacts that can be used to explain, justify, or potentially challenge my research findings. This step became more of an ongoing process that started before I planned my research, and continued right through to writing the literature review; however, this might be a reflection of the methodology that I pursued (Grounded Theory) rather than being appropriate for all dissertations.

Initially I used a table similar to the Review stage where I noted specific comments that I thought might be useful when writing the dissertation. The format I used for this table was:

  • Research Objective – I used a code for each of these as well as for different aspects of the research objective (eg. 1a, 2c, 3d, 3e); this allowed me to filter the results when writing the literature review
  • Source – the name of the original document
  • Insight – what was written about the research objective (could be a quote, the name of a model, or a description of what the author was discussing)
  • Page – where in the source was this written

Annotating in EvernoteAlthough I found this useful, it became very time-consuming, so I decided to use this approach for only the key texts about my research objectives, and then for the rest I reverted to recording annotations and comments on the documents themselves. However, this is not to say that the approach won’t work for others I suspect this depends on personal preferences, time available, and the nature of the research topic being studied.

4. Write

The final stage of the literature review is to actually write it for the dissertation. Given the preparation I had undertaken in previous stages, I found this relatively straightforward to undertake – although that’s not to suggest it was easy. However, there were some key things that helped me whilst writing:

  • I had a number of clearly defined research objectives, and during the previous stages had assigned every source to one or more objectives. When it came to writing a section about that objective, a quick filter on the tables quickly provided a more focused list of content to base my review on.
  • Whilst reviewing the content I highlighted in a specific colour any quotations that I felt were particularly relevant. A quick skim through a source looking for that colour then helped me find quotations that would support the literature review discussion.
  • Separating out the research objectives into categories and subcategories not only helped me to structure the literature review, but also made it much easier to know where to bring in specific sources. For example, three specific papers focussed on knowledge leakage, and so when writing about that topic I could instantly locate previous research and insights.

Although these four stages may appear to be a lot of work, and possibly an arduous approach, I found they allowed me to capture everything in a manner that made writing the literature review relatively straightforward. This approach also helped me become very aware of the different sources and authors, so when I wanted to discuss a point in the literature review, I often knew exactly which document to refer to without needing to review lots of articles.

So that’s the literature review; the next stage of the P&D is typically defining a research methodology and undertaking the research, which I will discuss in my next post.

Getting started with the P&D

It’s been a few months since my last blog post, as I have been busy working on the final stage of my MBA, the Project & Dissertation. In the middle of last year I posted about my decision to defer starting my P&D until after I had completed all 13 modules, so that I could focus 100% on the P&D, and review my project topic given that I had recently moved into a new job. Since then I have chosen a new topic, completed the literature review and undertaken my research; I am now in the process of completing the analysis and writing up my dissertation.

The focus of my project is the topic of Strategic Alliances. The primary reason for choosing this was that it gave me the opportunity to get involved in and contribute to an activity currently underway at work, as opposed to it just being for academic purposes; for some of the other reasons see my previous post on choosing an MBA project.  Although strategic alliances did not receive much attention in the MBA modules I studied, it has been fascinating to learn about a new area of business management – especially one that potentially has such a strategic impact. For anyone who is interested in knowing more, here are a few articles to whet your appetite (and feel free to get in touch if you’d like a more comprehensive list – I have collated plenty of sources!):

Planning the P&D

Book - Research Methods for Business Students

Once I had finalised the subject area for my P&D, I decided to develop a step-by-step plan to get from choosing my research topic to submitting the final dissertation. There are a number of resources on the WBS Intranet that explain how to do this, but after reviewing a former student’s presentation on how they approached their P&D, I made the decision to invest in a book dedicated to the process. There were lots to choose from, including a recommendation from WBS to use Real World Research. However, after reviewing the synopsis of this and many others, I opted to buy Research Methods for Business Students – it also received strong reviews, is slightly more recent, and is focussed specifically on those undertaking a research project in business. For anyone at the start of their P&D, I would strongly recommend buying a book on the topic before going too far – there was lots of advice in the book that has helped guide me on every step of my P&D. Also, the methodology section of the dissertation typically expects you to justify the decisions you make regarding any research, and this book will provide lots of material for this.

The plan I produced involved a number of different stages:

  1. Identify my research objectives
  2. Search for relevant literature that would guide my research
  3. Develop a research methodology based on the project requirements and current literature
  4. Review the literature in more detail, to ensure that the research is consistent with, and builds on this
  5. Undertake the research
  6. Analyse the literature and draw conclusions
  7. Produce the project deliverable (if required)
  8. Write the dissertation
  9. Review the dissertation (based on project supervisor feedback)
  10. Final review and submit the dissertation

However, there are lots of different ways of approaching the P&D, with some of the following changes:

  • It may be more appropriate to undertake the full literature review before even considering the research methodology
  • The requirement for and timing of the project deliverable depends on if the P&D is in place to support a live business requirement, and if so, what the expectations are of the project sponsor
  • Writing the dissertation can be undertaken alongside each of the steps rather than at the end (ie. write the introduction in step 1, methodology in step 3, etc) – this approach is commonly encouraged, but unfortunately I was not able to follow this due to time constraints on when my research had to take place

Another invaluable piece of advice that was given to me is to speak regularly with your project supervisor as you begin to scope out your project idea, develop your research methodology, and plan your dissertation; they may have specific guidance on the best approach to follow. I have found the discussions with my supervisor very beneficial, both because they helped provide clarity around what was expected of me when undertaking the research & analysis, and also ensuring that my dissertation will be consistent with what they expect (after all, they are the ones first-marking it).

That’s just a quick introduction to getting started with the P&D – in future posts I’ll share my thoughts about undertaking the literature review, completing the research and writing the dissertation.

Looking back over the 13 modules

13 modules, 17 textbooks, 130 lessons, 4 visits to Warwick, 15 TMAs, 11 assignments, and 3 exams. Two and a half years after I started my MBA, I’m very pleased to say that on Wednesday I received confirmation that I had passed my final module’s assignment, meaning I have now completed all the modules and just have the project & dissertation to complete. It feels great to know that I have finished the taught learning of the MBA, and although it has been challenging and exhausting at times, it has been an extremely valuable experience. The textbooks, lessons, live webinars, and online discussions  have been interesting, insightful and valuable, and the assignments have complemented the learning by demonstrating how to apply many of the theories and concepts in real life. I’m really pleased with the breadth of subject matter that has been covered on the Warwick MBA, and feel that there was a good balance of modules across the broad spectrum of business topics. As a reminder, the modules I studied are:

Corporate Strategy 

Functional Areas

Culture & People

Financial

Other

In general I enjoyed all the modules, but looking back my top three would be:

Innovation & Creativity – I’m personally very interested in how innovation can help organisations be successful, and so was really looking forward to this module which I chose as one of my electives. The various innovation frameworks and perspectives on innovation were fascinating, particularly when I used these to assess the innovativeness of organisations I was familiar with. It was also useful to appreciate the role of creativity, particular in terms of managing creativity both at an individual and group level. The final assignment was very interesting, as it required me to undertake an assessment of the innovation capability of the company I worked for, and was a great opportunity to understand how the concepts applied to the reality of an organisation’s processes, structure and culture.

Management of Change – This was another of my electives, and I expected to find a number of different methodologies and frameworks that could be used to implement change within an organisation. Initially I was slightly disheartened when I realised that only one of the ten lessons focused on these methodologies; however, as I progressed through the module I came to appreciate the various complexities of change, the importance of considering an organisation’s readiness for change, the different approaches that can be used to ‘frame’ changes, and how resistance to change can be dealt with. Overall, the module provided some really valuable insights, which I am confident I will be able to draw on in the future when involved in change programmes. Like Innovation & Creativity, the assignment was also based on the company I worked for, which again brought the module’s concepts to life, and helped me appreciate the challenges involved in implementing change in a large,  global organisation.

Strategic Advantage – this was a core module that considered the business strategy of an organisation. It started by looking at ways of evaluating the competitive landscape for an organisation, and then explored the different approaches to developing a competitive strategy, such as market and resource-based strategies, blue-ocean strategy, and hyper-competition. There were also some interesting lessons on mergers, alliances, and global strategies, all of which were fascinating. Although the module covered a broad range of concepts, I would have liked it to have gone into more depth in some areas; however, I guess this just means I should have taken the Strategy & Practice elective module.  The final assignment was another really interesting one, focussing on the strategic impact of the Deepwater Horizon disaster on BP.

Although these were my top three modules, all the others were still both interesting and valuable:

The Financial modules provided insight into financial statements, product costs & pricing, budgeting, performance control, financing decisions and the mechanics of publicly-owned companies;

The Functional modules explained in detail the challenges and opportunities in two key business functions, Marketing and Operations, and demonstrated these from both a day-to-day and strategic perspective;

Organisational Behaviour provided a look at the human and cultural side of an organisation, from the perspective of individuals, groups, the whole firm, and its interaction with society;

Economics of the Business Environment demonstrated the impact of the wider economy of a business strategy, both in terms of the macro-economy and micro-economy;

Modelling and Analysis taught a number of tools that can be used in many different business activities, such as regression, simulation, and modelling;

Complexity, Management and Network Thinking looked at how businesses can take advantage of the increasingly complex environments in which they operate, including the networks that develop between people, organisations, processes, and systems.

 

All that remains now to complete my MBA is the Project & Dissertation. This is a significant piece of work (about 25% of the MBA), which I’m really pleased to be starting as this will give me the opportunity to study in detail some of the concepts learned during the course, and apply them to a real-life environment. I made the decision to put my P&D on hold for a few months whilst I completed my last module, so although I’m starting a bit later than originally planned, this means I can now focus 100% of my time on the P&D, which I expect to take me until the start of next year. Although I have not finalised the exact research question for my P&D, it will almost definitely be related to the fields of Strategy, Business Models, or Innovation – but more about that in a future post.

Choosing an MBA project

In addition to studying 13 modules, the Warwick MBA also requires students to undertake a Project and Dissertation. This is a major piece of work that usually lasts the final year of the MBA (for distance learning students), although it can also be completed in 6-9 months depending on other workload commitments. There are two different parts to the P&D:

  • The Project typically involves investigating a company or industry issue, and includes elements of research and analysis. However, there is also the option to undertake a “desk-based” project which, which can be either research-based or literature-based.
  • The Dissertation is an assessed 15,000 word assignment, where the project is critically analysed, and includes a literature review, an explanation of the methodology used, and significant discussion of the findings and analysis.

Choosing a Project

Although the P&D is typically not started until the end of the second year, the general consensus is that students should start thinking about the project as soon as possible.  I would strongly agree with this, with my recommendation being to start thinking about the project choice after the first semester, for the following reasons:

  • The P&D explores in-depth one or more concepts from modules undertaken during the course, so it is helpful to look out for relevant concepts as you are studying the modules; it may be difficult to remember which aspects of modules were interesting if they were studied over a year ago.
  • The topic on which you want to undertake your project may be studied in one or more electives, which are chosen in the second semester. Although it is possible to change electives as the course progresses, if you do not identify your project idea until late in the second year, there may be limited opportunity to change to the elective(s) you require.
  • Finding a project topic can be easy for some, but may also be quite difficult – in which case taking a year to explore various ideas will avoid needing to find an idea quickly midway through the fourth semester.
  • If you want to undertake a company-based project, it can take time to find the right sponsors and get approval for the project, especially if you want to use a company other than your current employer.

Before choosing the project, it’s important to think about what you want to get from it; although it is required in order to complete the MBA, given the amount of work involved it would be a missed opportunity if this was the only objective. For example, the P&D could present an opportunity to immerse yourself in an area and become a specialist in a concept, it could be used to position yourself for a future career move (both for internal promotion or to be attractive to future employers), or it could be an opportunity to help a local business or charity that you have a particular interest in.

When choosing a project, it’s important to consider the following factors:

  • Academic suitability – is the idea aligned sufficiently to academic theory, and will it provide opportunities for further research and investigation?
  • Interest – as you will be working on the project for 6-12 months, it ideally needs to be based on a topic you find interesting, in order for you to stay motivated to the end.
  • Existing knowledge and experience – although not essential, if you have existing knowledge relating to the topic, it will reduce the time needed for background reading and learning, allowing  more time to be spent on the analysis and literature review.
  • Access to businesses and people – many projects involve primary research, so having access to people or companies from which to collect this research will improve the likelihood of obtaining sufficient, relevant data from which to draw conclusions.

Writing the Project Proposal

WBS Project Proposal FormOnce you’ve decided the focus area for your P&D, the next step is to submit a project proposal. This is an unassessed document that is used by the P&D team to review the idea, ensure it is appropriate for the MBA programme, and allocate a suitable academic supervisor.

The information required for this document means that you need to consider the methodology and relevant literature before you undertake the P&D. If you have a specific, defined project idea then this should be relatively straightforward to put together. However, if there is still some ambiguity to the project focus, I believe it is also acceptable to document some initial thoughts in the proposal, then explore these further with your allocated supervisor. What is important is that the proposal accurately reflects the appropriate discipline (e.g. Strategy, Marketing, Finance, Entrepreneurship), to ensure that a supervisor is allocated who where possible has a level of experience and/or interest in the field.

A recent change to the P&D submission process is the timing schedule; there are now four specific proposal submission dates throughout the year. This not only provides a level of flexibility to accommodate how students schedule their electives, but also means that if a proposal has to be withdrawn because it is not suitable or no longer feasible, it is not necessary to wait until the next cohort’s submission date in order to submit a new proposal.

 

Hopefully this post has given new and existing students an idea of what to expect when choosing a project; as my P&D progresses I will post about my experience undertaking the Project and writing the Dissertation. Right now though, it’s back to my final MBA module, Corporate Finance.